TOEFL AGAIN 50

TOEFL AGAIN 50
Sending humans to Mars has been the dream of many scientists, but it is rather a challenging task. The reading proposes three problems that astronauts could face when going to Mars, yet the professor in the lecture suggests a few solutions and says that that it is possible to send human onto Mars.
Firstly, the reading states that there will be a lack of food and oxygen going to Mars. Since Mars is so far away from earth, the spaceship will not have the capacity of holding so many cargo. This is rebutted by the professor in the listening, who replies that astronauts on the spaceship could use hydroponics, a technique that allows plants to grow in water instead of in soil, which would save much space and making cultivating food crops possible. In addition, during the process of photosynthesis, oxygen will be produced so there will also be fresh air.
Secondly, the reading thinks that as there will be 0 gravity in the spaceship on the way to Mars, there will be lots of negative effects such as decreased muscle mass and lower bone density. On the other hand, the professor argues that astronauts have techniques that can ease these effects, for example, exercising more to reduce muscle loss and eat foods with more vitamin to slow down the reduce of bone density.
The third challenge in the reading is radiation from the sun. It says that the radiation will be dangerous to humans but providing a shield will be too expensive to afford. On the contrary, the professor thinks that the sun isn’t always dangerous. In fact, its radiation is only dangerous when sometimes it becomes really active. A solution proposed by the professor is to make a small shelter that is free of radiation and astronauts will only need to get in at times when the sun is active.
As a conclusion, the reading describes sending humans to Mars as an almost impossible task, while the professor in the listening provides lots of solution to the challenges, proving the task possible.
———————   Model Answer  ———————
Both the reading and listening are arguing over a question whether it is possible to send human being to Mars. The reading lists out three problems to a successful carrying out. However, the listening offers three solutions to these questions.
First, the reading raises the question that it takes too long to send people to Mars, approximately two years and no spacecraft could take that many loads of food, water and life essentials. Instead, the listening says this is not a real problem since the astronauts could use hydroponics to grow crop plants in water and food will not be an obstacle. Also, they could grow plants with recycle waste water and reuse it as clean water vapor, which could be drunk. Plus, since all plants do photosynthesis, the astronauts could breathe fresh air released by them.
Second, the reading asserts that living in a zero-gravity environment would exert a negative effect on one’ s health. Nevertheless, the professor says that the astronauts have learned to use several techniques to make up for the health issue. They will do regular exercise to prevent muscle mass from decreasing and take vitamins and minerals to slow down problem with their bone density. In another word, they’ ve figured out how to cope with the potential health problem.
Third, the reading claims that radiation emitted by the sun would be dangerous to astronauts. This time professor subtly rejects by pointing out that a third solution has come out. The spaceship would be equipped with a special instrument to monitor the radiation. What’ s more, the device could also shield against the radiation. When astronauts meet the period of a large amount of radiation, they could hide behind the shielded areas and come out when the danger has passed.

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