Earlier in the year, Hawking said that: “We are running out of space and the only places to go to are other worlds.” In this speech, I am going to introduce the consequences and solution of the overpopulation in the recent years.
Population is growing rapidly all around the world and Earth is running out of space: The growth rate in 2016 is 1.12% and 1.14% in 2017. New estimates issued by the United Nations in July predict that, by 2030, our current 7.3 billion will have increased to 8.4 billion. That figure will rise to 9.7 billion by 2050, and to a mind-boggling 11.2 billion by 2100.
Rapid population growth has a variety of consequences. Firstly, it resulted in the overuse of the country’s natural resources. Agricultural holdings become smaller and unremunerative to cultivate. There is no possibility of increasing farm production through the use of new land. As a result, many households continue to live in poverty. Secondly, it causes urbanisation. There is no more space for people to live in the countryside so they chose to move to the cities. This causes permanent environmental damages. Thirdly, lower employment rate is caused. This again leads to poverty, and due to the financial stresses social isolation and crimes will increase.
I think it is important to take action to slow down population growth, and I have seen lots of them in my life. Policies is one of the most effective way and the one that is most usually used. For example, the “one child legislation” in China. It successfully decreases the fertility from six births per woman in the 1960s to 1.5 in 2014. Education is another way to slow population growth down. Where women and girls have economic empowerment, education and freedom, they choose to have smaller families. For instance, African women with no education have, on average, 5.4 children; women who have completed secondary school have 2.7 and those who have a college education have 2.2. Smaller family size also empowers women to gain education, take work and improve their economic opportunities.
As a conclusion, I think it is important to slow down population growth, as it has serious consequences. Let’s start to pay attention to it and think of ways to slow it down.